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Table 4. Frequency of upstream and downstream swimming behaviors and, plasma levels of testosterone (T), thyroxine (T4), and (g) triiodothyronine (T3) (mean ± SEM) in controls and T 500 μg/fish-treated 1+ smolts and 1+ precocious male masu salmon. Differences in the frequency of upstream and downstream swimming behavior from the control group were analyzed by the χ2-test, using StatView version 4.5 software (Abacus Concepts, Inc., California, USA). *** indicates significant difference at P < 0.001, from the control group. Differences in mean plasma hormone levels among experimental groups were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Fisher's PLSD. Differing letters represent significant differences at P < 0.05 among all groups. Reprinted from Aquaculture, 362–363, Munakata et al., Involvement of sex steroids and thyroid hormones in upstream and downstream behaviors in masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou, 158–166, © 2012a, with permission from Elsevier.

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