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Table 3. Frequency of migrants and non-migrants and, plasma levels of testosterone (T), estradiol-17β (E2), thyroxine (T4), and (g) triiodothyronine (T3) (mean ± SEM) in castrated, castrated + E2 500 μg/fish, sham-operated, sham-operated + E2 500 μg/fish, control, and tamoxifen 500 μg/fish-treated 1+ precocious male masu salmon. Differences in the frequency of upstream behavior from the control group were analyzed by the χ2-test, using StatView version 4.5 software (Abacus Concepts, Inc., California, USA). * indicates significant difference at P < 0.05, from the control group. Differences in mean plasma and pituitary hormone levels among experimental groups were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Fisher's PLSD. Differing letters represent significant differences at P < 0.05 among all groups. —: no sample. Reprinted from Aquaculture, 362–363, Munakata et al., Involvement of sex steroids and thyroid hormones in upstream and downstream behaviors in masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou, 158–166, © 2012a, with permission from Elsevier.

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