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Table 1. Frequency of migrants and non-migrants, and plasma levels of testosterone (T), estradiol-17β (E2), 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one (DHP), thyroxine (T4), and (g) triiodothyronine (T3) (mean ± SEM) in 2+ male and female masu salmon during upstream migratory period. Differences in mean plasma hormone levels among experimental groups were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Fisher's PLSD. Differing letters represent significant differences at P < 0.05 among all groups. —: no sample. Reprinted from Aquaculture, 362–363, Munakata et al., Involvement of sex steroids and thyroid hormones in upstream and downstream behaviors in masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou, 158–166, © 2012a, with permission from Elsevier.

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