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Fig. 14. (a) Frequency of migrants and non-migrants, plasma levels of (b) testosterone (T), (c) thyroxine (T4), and (d) triiodothyronine (T3) in castrated, cast. + T 50 μg, cast. + T 500 μg-treated groups, and sham-operated 1+ precocious male masu salmon. Numbers above columns in (a) indicate the number of migrants and non-migrants. Differences in the frequency of upstream behavior from the control group were analyzed by the χ2-test, using StatView version 4.5 software (Abacus Concepts, Inc., California, USA). * and *** indicate significant difference at P < 0.05 and P < 0.001, respectively from the control group. Differences in mean plasma hormone levels among experimental groups were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Fisher's PLSD. Differing letters represent significant differences at P < 0.05 among all groups. Reprinted from General and Comparative Endocrinology, 122, Munakata et al., The effects of testosterone on upstream migratory behavior in masu salmon, Oncorhynchus masou, 329–340, © 2001b, with permission from Elsevier.

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