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Fig. 12. (a) Frequency of migrants and non-migrants, plasma levels of (b) testosterone (T), (c) estradiol-17β Elsevier Science (USA), with permission from Elsevier. (E2), (d) 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT), (e) 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnene-3-one (DHP), (f) thyroxine (T4), and (g) triiodothyronine (T3) in castrated, castrated + T 500 μg, E2 500 μg, 11-KT 500 μg, and DHP 500 μg/ fish-treated groups, and sham-operated 1+ precocious male masu salmon. Numbers above columns in (a) indicate the number of migrants and non-migrants. Differences in the frequency of upstream behavior from the control group were analyzed by the χ2-test, using StatView version 4.5 software (Abacus Concepts, Inc., California, USA). *, **, and *** indicate a significant difference at P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.001, respectively from the control group. Differences in mean plasma hormone levels among experimental groups were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Fisher's PLSD. Differing letters represent significant differences at P < 0.05 among all groups. Reprinted from Comp. Biochem. Physiol. Part B, 129, Munakata et al., The involvement of sex steroid hormones in downstream and upstream migratory behavior of masu salmon, 661–669, © 2001a, with permission from Elsevier.

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