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Fig. 10. (a) Frequency of migrants and non-migrants, plasma levels of (b) testosterone (T), (c) pituitary contents of luteinizing hormone (LH), (d) plasma levels of LH, (e) thyroxine (T4), and (f) triiodothyronine (T3) in control and T 500 μg-treated smolts, and precociously mature male 1+ sockeye salmon. In Fig. 10c, unit of Y axis in the control group was ng/pituitary, while those of T-treated and precocious male groups was μg/pituitary. Numbers above columns in (a) indicate the number of migrants and non-migrants. Differences in the frequency of downstream behavior from the control group were analyzed by the χ2-test, using StatView version 4.5 software (Abacus Concepts, Inc., California, USA). * indicates a significant difference at P < 0.05 from the control group. Differences in mean plasma and pituitary hormone levels among experimental groups were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Fisher's PLSD. Differing letters represent significant differences at P < 0.05 among all groups. Reprinted with permission from Fish. Sci., 78, Munakata et al., Involvement of sex steroids, luteinizing hormone and thyroid hormones in upstream and downstream migratory behaviors in land-locked sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka, 81–90, Fig. 3, © 2012b, The Japanese Society of Fisheries Science.

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