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Fig. 3. Lifecycles of masu salmon (Oncorhynchus masou). In masu salmon, some immature juveniles (migratory form) display the downstream migratory behavior after they have transformed from parr to smolt (smoltification). However, some juveniles (non-migratory form) such as precociously mature males (precocious males) will live continuously in their natal rivers throughout their lifetime. The lifecycle (migratory behavior, seaward migration) of migrants consists of downstream migration, feeding, homing, upstream migration, and spawning. On the other hand, the lifecycle of non-migrants consists of downstream movement within a river, stream residence, upstream movement, and spawning.

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