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Fig. 16. Left: Schematic drawing of the heart and its major in- and outflow vessels in Amphipnous cuchia (=Monopterus cuchia, Rosen and Greenwood 1976). Note the paired shunt vessels (=BA4 of Fig. 7) from the ventral aorta forming the dorsal aorta. The effluent blood from the air-breathing organ converges with systemic venous blood in the jugular veins. Right: Air-breathing increases cardiac output and the fraction of the cardiac output perfusing the air-breathing organ. During breath holding, a major fraction of the cardiac output is shunted from the ventral to the dorsal aorta. Reprinted with permission from A Companion to Animal Physiology, Taylor, Johansen, Bolis (eds.), Blood, circulation, and the rise of air breathing: Passes and bypasses, Johansen, 91–105, Fig. 7.2, © 1982, Cambridge University Press.

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