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Fig. 22. Separation of outer epithelium from a mantle fragment digested with dispase. A - a mantle fragment observed from the outside surface showing yellowish color of the epithelium. Dark brown pigmentation of a pallial zone (an arrow) is also observable. B - a lateral view of the digested fragment. The outer epithelium (arrowheads) is recognized by its coloration. Note difference in the color of the epithelium. C - outer epithelia peeled off from the mantle fragment in the form of cell sheets. The epithelial sheets have different colors. D - aggregates of small cell sheets having different colors. E - the separated outer epithelium observed with phase contrast microscopy. The epithelial cells possess a nucleus with a prominent nucleolus. F - bright field observation of the epithelium shown in E. Dark brown pigmentation is observable (arrowheads) in some populations of the epithelial cells. Scale bars - 1 mm (A-D), 100 μm (E, F). C is reprinted with permission from Invertebrate Cell Culture, Awaji, Primary culture techniques for the outer epithelial cells of pearl oyster mantle, 239–244, Fig. 2B, © 1997, Science Publishers.

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