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Fig. 16. Round crystals formed on the dark brown secretions of a mantle fragment cultured for three months with the TC199-based medium. Arrows indicate identical crystals observed with three different methods. A - bright field microscopy of the crystals formed along grooves of the folds on the outer surface of the fragment. Arrowheads - dark brown precipitates deposited along the grooves. B - polarizing microscopy of the crystals. Distinct birefringence was demonstrated. C - X-ray absorption demonstrated by microradiogram preparations. Scale bars - 200 μm. B and C are reprinted with permission from Protein, Nucleic acid and Enzyme, 34, Machii, Tissue culture of shell, 193–196, Fig. 5.6, © 1989, Kyoritsu Shuppan.

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