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Fig. 1. Histological structures of the mantle of pearl oyster Pinctada fucata. A - transverse section of the marginal and the pallial zone of a mantle. A boundary between the marginal and pallial zones is indicated by a line. Outside of the mantle (o) is covered with a monolayer of epithelial cells stained in grayish blue with hematoxylin. An arrowhead indicates a periostracum gland. An arrow indicates the spot where the height of an outer epithelium changes sharply. m - marginal zone; p - pallial zone; of - outer fold; mf - middle fold; if - inner fold; pg - periostracal groove. V - ventral side; D - dorsal side; O - outside; I - inside. B - periostracal gland (arrowhead) and periostracal groove (pg). An arrow indicates periostracum. C - outer epithelial cells in the marginal zone. The outer epithelial cells that differ in the staining intensity with hematoxylin are observed. An arrowhead indicates outer epithelial cells strongly stained with hematoxylin. D - outer epithelial cells with fine acidophilic granules in the cytoplasm (arrowheads). E - a part of the pallial zone where the height of outer epithelial cells changes sharply. An arrowhead, corresponding to an arrow in A, indicates the spot where the cell height starts to change. Mayer's hematoxylin and eosin stain. Scale bars - 500 μm (A), 100 μm (B and C), 50 μm (D and E), respectively.

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