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Fig. 22. Induction of autophagy. Two pathways, i.e., CMA and macroautophagy, are characterized in fish cells (Yamashita 2010; Yabu et al. unpubilished). The selective proteolysis of cytosolic protein substrates by CMA produces amino acids as an energy source under the heat-shocked conditions mediated by the heat-inducible members of the HSP70 family. In addition, macroautophagy that forms autophagic vacuoles (i.e., autophagosomes) is responsible for the survival of starved cells by intracellular protein bulk degradation.

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