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Fig. 37. Measurement of separation swimming index (SSI). Movements of the focal fish and the neighboring fish in 1 s were expressed as vectors (v1 and v2). The latter vector was then parallel-translated to give the separation distance (d) of two vectors. SSI was defined as 2d/(v1 + v2). Reproduced with permission from Fisheries Science, 69, Masuda et al., Development of schooling behavior in Spanish mackerel Scomberomorus niphonius during early ontogeny. 772­776, Figure 2, © 2003, the Japanese Society of Fisheries Science.

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