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Fig. 9. A, B. An intact tilapia embryo two days before hatching (A), and an embryo whose yolk sac has been almost severed from the embryonic body (B). An arrow indicates the incision. C­F. Incised wounds on the yolk-ball preparations at 0 h (C, E) and 3 h (D, F) after surgery stained with trypan blue (C, D) and those observed by scanning electron microscopy (E, F). The wound (arrowheads) had almost healed after incubation for 3 h in BSS. Note the symmetrical distribution of melanophores on the dorsal side of the yolk-sac membrane. Bars: A­D, 1 μm; E, F, 100 μm. Reprinted from J. Exp. Biol., 204, Shiraishi et al., In vitro effects of environmental salinity and cortisol on chloride cell differentiation in embryos of Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, measured using a newly developed "yolk-ball" incubation system, 1883­1888, 2001, The Company of Biologists Limited.

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