Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 65 (No. 1), pp. 121-127, 2009
Kangkuso Analuddin1, Sahadev Sharma1, Rempei Suwa2 and Akio Hagihara2*
1Graduate School of Engineering and Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan
2Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan
(Received 26 December 2007; in revised form 7 October 2008; accepted 7 October 2008)
Abstract: The crown foliage dynamics of Kandelia obovata (S., L.) Yong were investigated, including leaf recruitment, survival and leaf growth. Newly flushed leaves occurred successively throughout the year, with a maximum in July and a minimum in January. The highest leaf death was in August, whereas it was the lowest in January. The relative mortality rate of leaves seemed to depend on the season when new leaves flushed. The growth pattern of leaves varied among seasons. The maximum leaf area was significantly larger in winter than in autumn, but showed no significant difference between the winter and the other seasons. The half-expansion period and the intrinsic rate of increase were respectively longer and lower in winter than in the other seasons. Therefore, leaves flushed in summer grew faster in their initial stage and attained their maximum leaf area sooner than those flushed in winter. This most likely results from the difference in temperature between summer and winter. The crown leaf area was almost stable throughout the year, as if homeostatic control is likely to function. Stipule litterfall decreased significantly with increasing flower and propagule litterfalls, indicating that a high production of flowers and propagules results in low leaf recruitment. This may be because flower production and propagule growth impose a severe burden on K. obovata.