Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 62 (No. 3), pp. 321-330, 2006
Earth Observation Research and application Center (EORC), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), Harumi, Chuo-ku, Tokyo 104-6023, Japan
(Received 20 May 2005; in revised form 12 December 2005; accepted 13 December 2005)
Abstract: Ocean microwave emissions changed by the ocean wind at 6 GHz were investigated by combining data of the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer (AMSR) and SeaWinds, both aboard the Advanced Earth Observation Satellite-II (ADEOS-II). This study was undertaken to improve the accuracy of the sea surface temperature (SST) retrieved from the AMSR 6 GHz data. Two quantities, 6V*(H*), were defined by the brightness temperature of the AMSR at 6 GHz with two polarizations (V-pol and H-pol), adjusted for atmospheric effects and with a calm ocean surface emission removed. These quantities represent a microwave emission change due to the ocean wind at 6 GHz. 6V* does not change in a region where 6H* is less than around 4 K (referred to as z0). Both 6V* and 6H* increase above z0. The 6V* to 6H* ratio, sp, varies with the relative wind directions. Furthermore, the sp values vary with the SST, between the northern and southern hemisphere, and seasonally. By specifying appropriate values for z0 and sp, the SST error between AMSR and buoy measurement became flat against 6H*, which is related to the ocean wind. Two extreme cases were observed: the Arabian Sea in summer and the Northwestern Atlantic Ocean in winter. The air-sea temperature difference in the former case was largely positive, while it was largely negative in the latter. The 6V* and 6H* relations differed from global conditions in both cases, which resulted in incorrect SSTs in both areas when global coefficients were applied.