Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 59 (No. 5), pp. 685-693, 2003
Shizuo Tsunogai1*, Kentaro Kawada1, Shuichi Watanabe1 and Takafumi Aramaki2
1Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan
2Marine Research Laboratory, Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Mutsu 035-0064, Japan
(Received 12 August 2002; in revised form 13 November 2002; accepted 15 November 2002)
Abstract: The distributions of CFC (chlorofluorocarbon) in the water column was determined twice in 2000 and 2001 in the northwestern Japan Sea. In 2000 the CFC-11 concentration decreased almost exponentially with depth from 6 pmol/kg at a few hundred m deep to 0.3 pmol/kg or less at the bottom of about 3400 m depth at three stations (40-41°N, 132-133°E) about 300 km off Vladivostok. In 2001 the CFC-11 concentration increased sharply up to 2 pmol/kg in the bottom water, while it did not increase at a station (42.0°N, 136.5°E) about 450 km away to the northeast. This is due to the renewal of the bottom water which is replaced by the surface water flowing down along the continental slope, as suggested by Tsunogai et al. (1999), who proposed the continental shelf pump. Furthermore, an increase in the CFC-11 concentration was observed throughout the entire water column above 3000 m depth, although the proportion of the increase was about 20%, which was one order of magnitude smaller than that in the bottom water. The increase in inventory is almost four times larger than that in the bottom water below 3000 m depth which is equivalent to about 1/6 of the total inventory found in 2000. The increase also means that 3% of the deep water was replaced by the recent surface water, or, if the turnover occurs every year, that the turnover time of the deep water to be about 30 years.