Journal of Oceanography, Vol. 52 (No. 5), pp. 617-632, 1996
Ichiro Ishikawa1, Shigeaki Aoki2, Ryo Furue1 and Nobuo Suginohara1
1Center for Climate System Research, University of Tokyo, 4-6-1 Komaba, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 153, Japan
2National Institute for Resources and Environment, 16-3 Onogawa, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki 305, Japan
(Received 20 June 1995; in revised form 20 February 1996; accepted 26 February 1996)
Abstract: In recognition that similarity in the density balance leads to resemblance in circulation between the two-dimensional non-rotating and three-dimensional rotating systems which have similar density stratification, we investigate convection induced by cooling at one side wall and heating at the sea surface by using a two-dimensional non-rotating model as idealized representation for the deep Pacific circulation. In the model, various vertical profiles are taken for the side wall cooling, which are assumed to correspond to the density structure of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. In a small diffusivity range, two important features are found to be robust against change in the vertical profile of the side wall cooling. One is that the density stratification is horizontally almost uniform. The other is that the balance in the density equation between the vertical advection and the vertical diffusion holds in the interior. Consequently, the vertical density balance, together with the equation of continuity, determines the circulation pattern for the prescribed vertical profile of the side wall cooling. The multi-layered meridional flow, which is expected to exist in the deep Pacific, is shown to form for certain vertical profiles of the side wall cooling.