Geochemical Journal, Vol. 44 (No. 6), pp. 489-505, 2010
Harue Masuda,1 Muneki Mitamura,1 Abida M. Farooqi,1 Nasiim Muhanmad,2 Masafumi Owada,1 Kaori Okazaki1 and Ashraf Ali Seddique1
1Department of Geosciences, Osaka City University, 3-3-138, Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585, Japan
2Geoscience Laboratory, Geological Survey of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan
(Received June 9, 2009; Accepted June 4, 2010)
To constrain the origin of fluoride and arsenic contamination of groundwater in Kalalanwala, Punjab, Pakistan, the geochemical and mineralogical characteristics of the aquifer were studied. Subsurface geology of the area was studied using data from drilled cores. The residential and industrial areas including Kalalanwala are covered with Pleistocene aeolian deposits. These sediments cover two aquifers intercalated by a less permeable layer. Most polluted groundwater appears in the first aquifer at 15 to 25 m depth beneath the center of the village of Kalalanwala. A considerable amount of anthropogenic fluoride contaminates the aquifer along an ancient river channel. Arsenic might derive from anthropogenic sources such as industrial waste, or detrital chlorite.
Key words: anthropogenic contamination, groundwater aquifer, aeolian sediment, buried valley, chlorite