Geochemical Journal, Vol. 44 (No. 6), pp. 477-487, 2010
Toshitaka Gamo,1,2 Urumu Tsunogai,1 Shinsuke Ichibayashi,1 Hitoshi Chiba,3 Hajime Obata,2 Tamotsu Oomori,4 Takuro Noguchi,4 Edward T. Baker,5 Takashi Doi,6 Masahiro Maruo6 and Yuji Sano2
1Graduate School of Science, Hokkaido University, N10 W8, Sapporo 060-0810, Japan
2Ocean Research Institute, The University of Tokyo, 1-15-1, Minamidai, Nakano-ku, Tokyo 164-8639, Japan
3Department of Earth Sciences, Okayama University, 1-1, Tsushima-Naka, 1-chome, Okayama 700-8530, Japan
4Faculty of Science, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213, Japan
5NOAA Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA 98112, U.S.A.
6School of Environmental Science, University of Shiga Prefecture, Hikone 522-8533, Japan
(Received June 9, 2009; Accepted June 4, 2010)
Within neutrally buoyant hydrothermal plumes derived from the Yonaguni Knoll IV hydrothermal field (24°51´N, 122°42´E, D = 1,370-1,385 m) in the southwestern Okinawa Trough back-arc basin, we obtained profiles of dissolved manganese (Mn), helium isotopes (3He/4He), methane (CH4) and its stable carbon isotope ratio (δ13CPDB) in young to old plume waters. We first mapped the spatial distribution of hydrothermal plumes by towing a fixed array of optical sensors (Miniature Autonomous Plume Recorders: MAPRs) above the field. We then made water column observations and samplings using a CTD (Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth sensors)-Carousel package with a transmissometer and Niskin-X bottles at five locations, with distances between 0.6 and 6.1 km from the hydrothermally active center so far discovered. Vertical profiles of light transmission and chemical tracers indicated triple-layered plumes, the centers of which were at depths of 700-800 m, ~1,050 m and ~1,200 m. The CH4 concentrations and δ13C values for the 1,200-m plume ranged between 1,026 and 10 nmol/kg, and between -22.4 and +40.4 (the highest δ13C value yet reported for oceanic CH4), respectively, indicating active microbial CH4 oxidation accompanied by the δ13C increase for residual CH4. The δ13C(CH4) was shown to be useful for tracing such a "microbial plume" whose CH4 concentration has already fallen to almost the background level. By applying the Rayleigh distillation equation for a closed system, we estimated the kinetic isotope fractionation factor of 1.012 for the CH4 oxidation process occurring within the hydrothermal plumes deeper than 1,000 m.
Key words: hydrothermal plume chemistry, microbial methane oxidation, carbon isotope fractionation, southern Okinawa Trough