Earth Planets Space, Vol. 63 (No. 1), pp. 37-46, 2011
Tomoko Nakagawa1, Futoshi Takahashi2, Hideo Tsunakawa2, Hidetoshi Shibuya3, Hisayoshi Shimizu4, and Masaki Matsushima2
1Tohoku Institute of Technology, 35-1 Yagiyama Kasumi-cho, Taihaku-ku, Sendai, Miyagi 982-8577, Japan
2Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
3Department of Earth Sciences, Kumamoto University, 39-1, Kurokami 2-chome, Kumamoto 860-8555,Japan
4Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, 1-1-1, Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0032, Japan
(Received August 9, 2009; Revised December 28, 2009; Accepted January 19, 2010; Online published February 21, 2011)
Non-monochromatic fluctuations of the magnetic field over the frequency range of 0.03-10 Hz were detected by Kaguya at an altitude of 100 km above the lunar surface. The fluctuations were almost always observed on the solar side of the moon, irrespective of the local lunar crustal field. They were also detected just nightside of the terminator (SZA < 123°), but were absent around the center of the wake. The level of the fluctuation enhanced over the wide range from 0.03 to 10 Hz, with no clear peak frequency. The fluctuations had the compressional component, and the polarization was not clear. The fluctuations were supposed to be whistler waves generated by the protons reflected by the lunar surface. The reflected protons are scattered in various directions, resulting a wide range of distribution of the velocity component parallel to the magnetic field. It may account for the wide range of frequency as observed, through cyclotron resonance of the wave with the reflected ions, in which the resonant frequency depends on the velocity component parallel to the magnetic field. However, there is also the possibility that the waves were generated by some nonresonant process.
Key words: Moon, whistler wave, solar wind, reflected protons, Kaguya.