Earth Planets Space, Vol. 61 (No. 5), pp. 581-584, 2009LETTER
Satomi Kamei1,4, Aoi Nakamizo2,4, Takashi Tanaka2,4, Takahiro Obara3,4, and Hironori Shimazu3,4
1Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Graduate School of Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan
2Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581, Japan
3National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1 Koganei-shi, Tokyo 184-8795, Japan
4CREST, Japan Science and Technology Agency, Kawaguchi-shi, Saitama 332-0012, Japan
(Received September 28, 2007; Accepted February 7, 2008; Online published May 29, 2009)
The heliospheric structure ranging from the solar surface to the earth's orbit is self-consistently reproduced from a time-stationary three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation. The simulation model incorporates gravity, Coriolis, and centrifugal forces into the momentum equation, and coronal heating and field-aligned thermal conduction into the energy equation. The heating term in the present model has its peak at 2.8 solar radius (Rs) and exponentially falls to zero at greater distance from the solar surface. The absolute value of heating depends on the topology of the solar magnetic field so as to be in inverse proportion with the magnetic expansion factor. The results of the simulation simultaneously reproduce the plasma-exit structure on the solar surface, the high-temperature region in the corona, the open- and closed-magnetic-field structures in the corona, the fast and slow streams of the solar wind, and the sector structure in the heliosphere.
Key words: Solar wind, MHD simulation, CIR.