Earth Planets Space, Vol. 56 (No. 12), pp. 1163-1169, 2004
B. J. Drummond1, B. E. Hobbs2, and B. R. Goleby1
1Geoscience Australia, GPO Box 378, Canberra City, ACT, 2601, Australia
2CSIRO Exploration and Mining, 26 Dick Perry Drive, Kensington, WA, 6151, Australia
(Received May 31, 2004; Revised November 16, 2004; Accepted December 6, 2004)
Gold deposits in the Archaean Eastern Goldfields Province in Western Australia were deposited in greenstone supracrustal rocks by fluids migrating up crustal scale fault zones. Regional ENE-WSW D2 shortening of the supracrustal rocks was detached from lower crustal shortening at a regional sub-horizontal detachment surface which transects stratigraphy below the base of the greenstones. Major gold deposits lie close to D3 strike slip faults that extend through the detachment surface and into the middle to lower crust. The detachment originally formed at a depth near the plastic-viscous transition. In orogenic systems the plastic-viscous transition correlates with a low permeability pressure seal separating essentially lithostatic fluid pressures in the upper crust from supralithostatic fluid pressures in the lower crust. This situation arises from collapse in permeability below the plastic-viscous transition because fluid pressures cannot match the mean stress in the rock. If the low permeability pressure seal is subsequently broken by a through-going fault, fluids below the seal would flow into the upper crust. Large, deeply penetrating faults are therefore ideal for focussing fluid flow into the upper crust. Dilatant deformation associated with sliding on faults or the development of shear zones above the seal will lead to tensile failure and fluid-filled extension fractures. In compressional orogens, the extensional fractures would be subhorizontal, have poor vertical connectivity for fluid movement and could behave as fluids reservoirs. Seismic bright spots at 15-25 km depth in Tibet, Japan and the western United States have been described as examples of present day water or magma concentrations within orogens. The likely drop in rock strength associated with overpressured fluid-rich zones would make this region just above the plastic-viscous transition an ideal depth range to nucleate a regional detachment surface in a deforming crust.
Key words: Fluids, faults, shear zones, seismic, Yilgarn Craton.