Memoirs of the Graduate School of Engineering Kobe University, No. 1, pp. 9-41, 2009
Akihiko NAKAYAMA1, Koji SAKIO2 , Yuya KITANO2 and Satoshi YOKOJIMA3
1Department of Civil Engineering, Kobe University
3Department of Systems Engineering, Shizuoka University
(Received November 20, 2009; Accepted February 26, 2010; Online published March 17, 2010)
Keywords: Turbulence, DNS, Rough Surface, Channel Flow, Large Eddies
Large-scale structures of flows over flat and wavy surfaces with and without two-dimensional and three-dimensional roughness waves on them, are studied numerically by first conducting Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of these flows at a Reynolds number in transitionally rough regime and numerically filtering the simulated results. A normalized kernel filter with a few different sizes and shapes that are applicable to flows near wall are used. The normalized positive filter smoothes the flow and the boundary by removing small-scale fluctuations and small-scale boundary protrusions at the same time. The characteristics of the extracted large-scale flows over the smoothed boundary and the effects of the removed sub-filter scale effects are studied in detail. Special emphasis is placed on the implications of the analyzed results in development and improvement of approximate simulation methods like Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of turbulent flows, where details of the flow and the boundary geometry cannot be resolved in full and modeling is needed. Filters with sizes that correspond to typical LES grid sizes remove considerable fraction of total fluctuations including correlated ones but the qualitative large structures are generally retained well if appropriate shape of the filter is used. The filtered large-scale flows over rough surfaces have similarities with the filtered flow over smooth surface with added resistance due to smoothed boundary. The effects of small boundary geometry removed by filtering are scaled by the filter size and the magnitude of the local velocity. Basic filtered equations of motion for near wall flows are also derived that can be used for rigorous analysis and modeling of interactions of the filter and the boundary.